Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Psychological Motives for Becoming a Terrorist Essay Introduction Suicide bombing, a major terror strategy of terrorists is, if not the most, one of the most gruesome acts anybody can commit. It is outright crazy and stupid. One must be beside the normal to be entertaining such a thought in mind. Ironically, fanatics who have committed and attempted suicide bombings in the past, were deemed normal until the day when the execution of their ultimate plans were made public whether foiled or completed. People who are afflicted with mental disorder may, as other people, travel for the same reasons Ã¢â¬â vacation, visiting friends or relatives, business, recreation, and sometimes for religious or spiritual focus (Miller Zarcone, 1968). Others indeed may travel for reasons other than the normal Ã¢â¬â for reasons triggered by malformed mental state such as the men who carried out the 911 attack of the Twin Towers in New York. Along the 911 attack, suicide bombing through aircraft came to prominence resulting in the stirring of the awareness among the international public of the fact that the regular traveler might not be that Ã¢â¬Å"regularÃ¢â¬ anyway. It is probable that some of them are driven by excessive anger or motivated by utopic hope as taught in the communities wherein they have pledged their life allegiance (Silke, 2003). Just a few months ago, upon the return of former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to her home country, 124 were killed and 320 plus got injured as a result of another suicide bombing. The bomber threw grenades among crowds of people and afterwards blasted himself to death (CNN update, Oct.18, 2007). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to think of sensible reasons why a sane person (if that person was ever considered sane by his colleagues) has committed such an act in the first place. To spend and expend oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self for a noble cause is commendable only if they benefit people outside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own community. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s never an ideal to advance a religionÃ¢â¬â¢s cause at the expense of the lives of other people. A suicide bomber is demented in that even in the logic of religion, all religions presupposed a benevolent god who is both powerful and loving. There must be distortions somewhere within the suicide bomberÃ¢â¬â¢s mind to have associated the act of delivering a bomb and acts of piety. Rationale of the argument ~Understanding mental health The majority of theories and models of human behavior fall into one of two basic categories: internal perspective and external perspective. The internal perspective considers the factors inside the person to understand behavior. People who subscribe to this view understand behavior as psychodynamically oriented. Behavior is explained in terms of the thoughts, feelings, past experiences and needs of the individual. The internal processes of thinking, feeling, perceiving and judging lead people to act in specific ways. This internal perspective implies that people are best understood from the inside and that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is best interpreted after understanding their thoughts and feelings (Jourad, 1963). The other category of theories takes an external perspective. This focuses on factors outside the person to understand behavior. External events, consequences of behavior, environmental forces to which a person is subject, are emphasized by this external perspective. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s history, value system, feelings and thoughts are not very important in interpreting actions and behavior. Kurt Lewin for instance considered both perspectives in saying that behavior is a function of both the person and the environment (Tiffin, McCormick, 1958). Man is a social being and as such his personality is viewed from the society and culture where he belongs. A society represents a geographical aggregate and has boundaries, similar government or a group of persons in meaningful interaction and engaged in social relationship. Personality is the individualizing traits of man which constitute his singularity and differentiate him from any other human being. The three determinants of personality: 1] biological heritage which has direct influence on the development of personality. This includes musculature, the nervous system, and the glands; 2] E.Q. factor describes qualities like understanding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, empathy for the feelings of others, and the Ã¢â¬Å"regulation of emotion in a way that enhances living (Gibbs, 1995);Ã¢â¬ 3] environmental factors. Taking everything normal, environment plays an important role in personality development. Environmental factors are cultural environment, social environment, home and family, culture, status and role and social agent. Many of menÃ¢â¬â¢s pronounced stirred-up state of mind such as fear, anger, disgust, and contempt, have posed the question, why? What has caused such a reaction? What has brought a change to his/her behavior? What is the frustration that has brought about such behavior? In the world of a suicide bomber, he/she contemplates on various input or stimuli from the world he/she evolves in. There are frustrations of every form and even without these, his/her psyche or mental state functions on the basis of anything he/she receives (actively or passively) from the milieu. LifeÃ¢â¬â¢s problems are numerous and as long as one is alive and kicking he will always be faced with problems, be they big or small. Such problems stir-up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions or feelings which maybe pleasant or unpleasant. Physiological problems, environmental problems, personal deficiencies and psychological concerns bring on a variety of responses; some predictable, others are not. Disorganization of family life, disintegration of personality brought about by depression, great personal suffering, any of these may take any person beyond the limits of his tolerance. Man is born in a social environment surrounded by cultural norms and values. He is faced with cultural taboos and acceptable social behavior. Numerous environmental factors come to the fore which may or may not be easily overcome. One of the most difficult problems in this area is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts. Environmental frustrations cannot be avoided, for there are always certain factors in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and achievement. Psychological or internal problems are the most difficult to resolve as they are within the inner feelings of a person. One may not be able to detect his/her concerns/anxieties through his /her overt behavior. It may only be inferred from what his/her inner thoughts and feelings are but will not know what caused such a feeling. Psychological concerns of various forms represent a more serious threat to the personality of the individual than do environmental pressures. If severe enough, they may create considerable emotional tension with accompanying behavior disorders. Reacting to pressures and other concerns such as frustration varies from person to person because of their personality differences. These reactions maybe defensive, neurotic or psychotic. Most people are sympathetic to people who develop physical ailments, but regard an individual with mental disorder as Ã¢â¬Å"crazy.Ã¢â¬ At this juncture, does a suicide bomber then be considered a person with a mental disorder or deemed as Ã¢â¬Å"crazy?Ã¢â¬ definitions of mental health vary considerably. Freud when asked what he thought a normal, healthy person should do well replied Ã¢â¬Å"love and work.Ã¢â¬ Karl MenningerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1956) definition is quite similar to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s. He states: Ã¢â¬Å"Let us define mental health as the adjustment of human beings to the world and each other with a maximum of effectiveness and happiness. Not just efficiency, or just contentment, or the grace of obeying the rules of the game cheerfully. It is all together. It is the ability to maintain an even temper and happy disposition. This, I think, Ã is a healthy mind.Ã¢â¬ When we therefore, try to define mental health, we have in mind the adjustment process which an individual brings into force when he is faced with a problem situation. Adjustment is defined as an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s manner of reacting or responding adequately to a perceived problem. From the standpoint of mental health, adjustment refers to a happy and socially acceptable response to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s situations. Mental health therefore, is the ability of the individual to function effectively and happily as a person in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s expected role in a group and in the society in general. It is a condition of the whole personality and is not merely a condition of the Ã¢â¬Å"mindÃ¢â¬ as is often supposed. It is an out-growth of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s total life and is promoted or hindered by day-to-day experience, not only by major crises as some assume (McCllelland et al, 1973). Mental health is the capacity to live harmoniously in a changing environment; to face and solve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s problems in a realistic manner; to accept the inevitable, and to understand and accept oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own shortcomings as well as the shortcomings of others. In this sense, people who develop and encourage Jihad or any Ã¢â¬Å"terroristicÃ¢â¬ ideas and brainwash others to do the same, are seen people who do have unrealistic way of looking at life and their experiences. They are commonly classified as people having delusions of grandeur among others. This term refers to people who experience a bloated sense of importance or missions and oftentimes associated with corresponding persecution complexes (Jourad, 1963). They therefore harbor also a sense of anxiety that some people are out there to cut off their goals and obstruct their missions. Their resolve to deliver their target aims is even stronger the reason for their methodical and systematic way of doing things. Since they cannot accept that they must co-exist with people whose beliefs radically differ from theirs, they accept the notion that annihilation is a solution and dying a martyrÃ¢â¬â¢s death to ensure this goal is the ultimate sacrifice. This kind of mindset comes only from a frame of thinking that has been exposed only to a few options; in fact, only very narrow options. That option is the radical Islamic alternative and nothing else. When living in this world, co-existence is not just something that is talked about inside the halls of the academe: co-existence signifies a mindset that is healthy as well and free from disorders. Mental health is a matter of degree. There is no hard and fast line that separates health from illness. It is not a simple matter to divide the population into two distinct groups-those who should be institutionalized and those who should not be. Many of us at one time or another exhibit traits and pattern of behavior which if, accentuated and continuous, would necessitate psychiatric care (Jourad, 1963). Though radical a thought this may seem, and naturally sounds unrealistic, the ideal place is to set monitoring and evaluation of mental hygiene at some point in time. How to do this is going to be a big issue, expectedly. However, terrorism and the likes of suicide bombing can probably be controlled in some ironic way: by referring to them as idiosyncratic, delusional or even possessing mental disorders. Another way of classifying them is through the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV (DSM) classification system; these people are versions of psychopaths or psychotics; because the symptoms are there and they cannot function normally among any general population. ~Towards developing a Strategy or Intervention Since the argument of this paper stands on looking at the acts of a suicide bomber as acts emanating from someone with mental illness, it follows that approaches to its reduction or elimination be provided or examined as well. There are three ways of looking at developing and establishing a strategy or intervention: the preventive, therapeutic, and the curative Kolb et al, 1974). There are subtleties that engulf these three but it is good to explore these dimensions. The preventive approach is based on the principles that the best way to ensure a well-adjusted individual is to surround him with environmental influences that will enable him to develop his full potentialities, to obtain emotional stability, and achieve personal and social adequacy. The therapeutic aspect is concerned with the attempt to correct minor behavioral adjustments through the various counseling and techniques of psychotherapy, or adjust to the social/or physical environment of the person in order to help him obtain the amount of emotional security and self-confidence necessary. The curative approach is sometimes called Ã¢â¬Å"preventive psychiatryÃ¢â¬ and is concerned with the detection and correction of serious but curative but behavioral maladjustments. Although this is the work of a trained clinician or psychiatrist, it is helpful for the layman to have at least a fundamental knowledge of the major types of behavioral maladjustments in order that he/she may have a basis in determining behavioral maladjustments that need the attention of competent specialists. It is therefore necessary, on a serious note, that public awareness on the nature of mental illness on a scope such as that of the course taken by the suicide bombers, coupled with detection of signs and symptoms by neighboring homes and those in the community, help diminish the threat. There are of course other paths or strategies to follow, but why not take all that is available to ensure our security (Kolb et al, 1974). References: 1. CNN, Breaking News, October 18, 2007. www.cnn.com 2. Gibbs, Nancy. 1995. Ã¢â¬Å"EQ FactorÃ¢â¬ Time International, October. 3. Gordon, Harvey, Mike Kingham, Tony Goodwin. Air travel by passengers with mental disorder. Psychiatric Bulletin (2004) 28:295-297. The Royal College of Psychiatrists. 4. Jourad, Sydney, 1963. Personal Adjustment. 2nd Ed. New York: MacMillan Company. 5. Kolb, David Ralph K. Schwitzgebel. 1974. Changing Human Behavior: Principles of Planned Intervention. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 6. McCllelland, David C. R.S. Steele. 1973. Human Motivation: A Book of Readings. Morristown, New Jersey, General Learning Press. 7. Menninger, Karl in Taylor, David, 2003. The concept of mental health in children. European Child Adolescent Psychiatry. Steinkopff. Volume 12, Number 3. Pp.107-113. 8. Miller, W. B. Zarcone, V. (1968) Psychiatric behaviour disorders at an international airport. Archives of Environmental Health, 17, 360 -365. 9. Silke, A. (2003). The psychology of suicide terrorism. In Terrorists, Victims and Society (ed. A. Silke), pp. 93 -108. Chichester: Wiley. 10. Tiffin, Joseph and Ernest McCormick J. 1958. Industrial psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Every country in the world has a government that sets laws to keep order and peace. Not every government can be just in its ruling, but what defines a just ruling? And does anyone truly have the right to control others? Throughout time different types of governments have been established. As history progressed most governments were overthrown because of the laws that were imposed. Emperors and Kings changed to Presidents and Prime Ministers. This was caused by revolutions because the people did not like the way they were being ruled. But should people be ruled in the first place? Who should have the right to do such a thing? Today, the most powerful countries are run by democracy. But what is its purpose? It is supposed to carry out the will of the majority. So this means that someone will always be unhappy. Political philosophy deals with these sort of issues. Great minds such as Plato, Aristotle, Voltaire and Locke have looked at these issues and have tried to find the best possible answers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In days of old, kings created laws in order to keep peace. Most of the laws were set for selfish reasons. As history progressed people felt that they were being ruled unfairly. So should laws even exist if there will always be someone who is receiving the Ã¢â¬Å"short end of the stickÃ¢â¬ ? Is it not the purpose, of laws and rights, to help people live in a safe environment? This is the main purpose of laws; to keep order. The governments that we have today have so many laws because they keep trying to solve problems by creating more and more laws. There are even laws for creating laws. However, although they are supposed to be in the best interest of the people, laws limit their free will. Laws tell a person what they can or cannot do. Unfortunately, they are still essential because they keep most citizens safe. So therefore, set laws, although essential, limit the free will of people no matter how sophisticated or organized they are. To support this, the theor ies and opinions of John Locke, Hobbes, Voltaire, and Plato will be presented. The first three of these philosophers lived at approximately the same time period and all support the essentiality of laws, although they limit free will. Plato lived much earlier but still has his own views on government and how it should be run. This paper will use their theories o... ...en in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s unusual utopian society where the philosophers are the government. The main idea that can be derived from these philosophers is that laws are essential because they make the lives of the citizens much safer and prosperous. It allows people to enjoy life rather than constantly watch their backs. The citizens give up a little of their free will in order to exercise another part of it. Bibliography Alistair Edwards and Jules Townshed. Interpreting Modern Political Philosophy: From Machiavelli to Marx. New York: Palgrave MacMillian, 2002. Dudley Knowles. Political Philosophy. Montreal: McGill- QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s University Press, 2001. John Gray. Voltaire: The Great Philosophers. New York: Routledge, 1999. Johann P. Sommerville. Thomas Hobbes: Political Ideas in Historical Context. Palgrave Macmillian, 1992. Jonathan Wolff. An Introduction to Political Philosophy. Oxford University Press, 1996. Michael J. White. Political Philosophy: A Historical Introduction. Oneworld Publications, 2004. Nicholas Jolley. Locke: His Philosophical Thought. Oxford University Press, 1999. Paul G. Paquette and Laura Gini- Newman. Philosophy: Questions and Theory. McGraw- Hill Ryerson, 2003. . Political Philosophy Essay -- essays research papers fc Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Every country in the world has a government that sets laws to keep order and peace. Not every government can be just in its ruling, but what defines a just ruling? And does anyone truly have the right to control others? Throughout time different types of governments have been established. As history progressed most governments were overthrown because of the laws that were imposed. Emperors and Kings changed to Presidents and Prime Ministers. This was caused by revolutions because the people did not like the way they were being ruled. But should people be ruled in the first place? Who should have the right to do such a thing? Today, the most powerful countries are run by democracy. But what is its purpose? It is supposed to carry out the will of the majority. So this means that someone will always be unhappy. Political philosophy deals with these sort of issues. Great minds such as Plato, Aristotle, Voltaire and Locke have looked at these issues and have tried to find the best possible answers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In days of old, kings created laws in order to keep peace. Most of the laws were set for selfish reasons. As history progressed people felt that they were being ruled unfairly. So should laws even exist if there will always be someone who is receiving the Ã¢â¬Å"short end of the stickÃ¢â¬ ? Is it not the purpose, of laws and rights, to help people live in a safe environment? This is the main purpose of laws; to keep order. The governments that we have today have so many laws because they keep trying to solve problems by creating more and more laws. There are even laws for creating laws. However, although they are supposed to be in the best interest of the people, laws limit their free will. Laws tell a person what they can or cannot do. Unfortunately, they are still essential because they keep most citizens safe. So therefore, set laws, although essential, limit the free will of people no matter how sophisticated or organized they are. To support this, the theor ies and opinions of John Locke, Hobbes, Voltaire, and Plato will be presented. The first three of these philosophers lived at approximately the same time period and all support the essentiality of laws, although they limit free will. Plato lived much earlier but still has his own views on government and how it should be run. This paper will use their theories o... ...en in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s unusual utopian society where the philosophers are the government. The main idea that can be derived from these philosophers is that laws are essential because they make the lives of the citizens much safer and prosperous. It allows people to enjoy life rather than constantly watch their backs. The citizens give up a little of their free will in order to exercise another part of it. Bibliography Alistair Edwards and Jules Townshed. Interpreting Modern Political Philosophy: From Machiavelli to Marx. New York: Palgrave MacMillian, 2002. Dudley Knowles. Political Philosophy. Montreal: McGill- QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s University Press, 2001. John Gray. Voltaire: The Great Philosophers. New York: Routledge, 1999. Johann P. Sommerville. Thomas Hobbes: Political Ideas in Historical Context. Palgrave Macmillian, 1992. Jonathan Wolff. An Introduction to Political Philosophy. Oxford University Press, 1996. Michael J. White. Political Philosophy: A Historical Introduction. Oneworld Publications, 2004. Nicholas Jolley. Locke: His Philosophical Thought. Oxford University Press, 1999. Paul G. Paquette and Laura Gini- Newman. Philosophy: Questions and Theory. McGraw- Hill Ryerson, 2003. .
Monday, January 13, 2020
Portfolio Popovics Anamaria, An II, RomÃ ¢n?-Englez? L121A feminist interpretation of Hemingway's Ã¢â¬ Hills like White ElephantsÃ¢â¬ Hemingway's works have largely covered the subject of feminism, and his short story Ã¢â¬ Hills like white elephantsÃ¢â¬ perfectly portrays a woman who breaks the norms of a society dominated by men and masculinity. As we all know, feminism is a social movement , an ideology which focuses on achieving rights for women . Women should be equal to men in each and every way. In Hemingway's short story we have two important characters: The American and The Girl. It should be noted that we can acknowledge only from the nicknames the author gives us that Ã¢â¬ The AmericanÃ¢â¬ seems to be superior from a plain old Ã¢â¬ GirlÃ¢â¬ . Is the girl American too ? Is she of another nationality? We aren't told this , but this makes us wonder just how important women were in the 20th century , how much they depended on men , how they didn't matter in society , how their feelings or opinions were pretty much non existent. This simple question gives a major clue on who is superior and who is inferior in the couple's relationship. Even from the beginning , when the Girl asks her partner about what they should drink , we can pretty much realise just how much she cares for her boyfriend's opinions and thoughts. It may seem just as a simple question , but if we analyze the whole text we surely get to the conclusion that the Girl really has surpressed feelings, frustrations , her own thoughts only get voice at the end of the short story , when she finally sees just how her relationship really is. The girl is clearly submissive to her dominant boyfriend, and she wants to do the things that please him. She is inferior in this case as she doesn't know the Spanish language, she can't order by herself, she depends on her boyfriend. I think that there are many famales who depend on their partner, but that it is much better to be an independent woman. Women shouldn't feel inferior to men, they should consider themselves as men's equals. The woman is clearly used to pleasing her boyfriend and doing whatever he wants.Ã¢â¬ Although Ã¢â¬Å"Hills Like White ElephantsÃ¢â¬ is primarily a conversation between the American man and his girlfriend, neither of the speakers truly communicates with the other, highlighting the rift between the two. Both talk, but neither listens or understands the other's point of view. Frustrated and placating, the American man will say almost anything to convince his girlfriend to have the operation, which, although never mentioned by name, is understood to be an abortion.Ã¢â¬ Ã (Source : SparkNotes Editors. Ã¢â¬Å"SparkNote on Hills Like White Elephants.Ã¢â¬ SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. 2007. Web. 19 May 2017.) The American man's girlfriend is a girl who doesn't speak up when talking about the abortion. It is clear that she doesn't want to have it, and even though she doesn't argue with her boyfriend their conversation is really tensionate. She is the typical american girl in the 20th century, a girl that would to anything for the man she loves, not caring about the consequences. I would now like to talk about Jig's (the nickname the Girl is given by her boyfriend, we don't know her actual name) feminist journey thourought the really short story. At the beginning , she really seems to be willing to do anything she can to save her relationship , even have an operation , an abortion . I truly believe she wakes up at one point in the conversation and realises there is nothing to save , that an abortion can't fix what's already damaged in the relationship . The American is clearly oblivious to his girlfriend's or, better said, the mother of his unborn child's needs and true wishes, and he really pressures her to do something that mainly affects her, she should be the one taking the decision about having a child or not , not anyone else. One quote of the text regarding the feiminist awakening in the Girl's soul is particularly important and worth mentioning : Ã¢â¬ Then I'll do it, I don't care about me.Ã¢â¬ (Source : Ã¢â¬ Hills like white elephants, by Ernest Hemingway from Charters, Ann, Ed. The Story and its Writer: An Introduction to Short Fiction. 6th Ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2003). This quote is especially relevant from a feminist point of view. Even though, at first, I actually thought that the woman wants to please her boyfriend and do as he wants her to do, I think that this is the moment she actually realises that everything she's done so far was only for him, she was careless when it came to her needs, her wishes and she is now actually waking up. She seems to realise just how much her dominant boyfriend is asking of her and she seems to have had enough. If we think about reporting this quote to real life we may say that women, even today, care about their partner's feeling more than they care about their own person. In today's relationships men try to dominate women and try to have the upper hand, and women are unfortunately are usually inferior to their partner and get to a point where they feel helpless, with low self-esteem and unhappy. Another quote that gives a glimpse of the Girl's realization that she does in fact want to keep the baby and doesn't want to have any operation at all is Ã¢â¬Å"But if I do it, then it will be nice again if I say things are like white elephants, and you'll like it?Ã¢â¬ (Source : Ã¢â¬ Hills like white elephants, by Ernest Hemingway from Charters, Ann, Ed. The Story and its Writer: An Introduction to Short Fiction. 6th Ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2003) Ã¢â¬ By this point, midway through the story, the girl has already retracted her previous comment that the surrounding hills look like white elephants, hinting that she wants to keep the baby instead of having an abortion. The man had been upset at this, feigning indifference but pushing for the abortion because he doesn't want the child. Still hoping to save their broken relationship, the girl asks her boyfriend whether things between them will return to the way they used to be if she goes through with the abortion. Her indecision and desire to placate the man demonstrate her dependence on him. At the same time, however, the mere fact that she asks the question may imply that she believes that nothing can save their relationship.Ã¢â¬ (Source : SparkNotes Editors. Ã¢â¬Å"SparkNote on Hills Like White Elephants.Ã¢â¬ SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. 2007. Web. 19 May 2017) This quote unveils, once again, Jig's awakening. She subtly hints at the fact that she doesn't want to have the operation, but wants the relationship between her and the American to be a happy and successfull one, as it once was. She asks this question knowing that things may never be as they once were, she slowly realizes that the relationship has reached its finish, and that no operation can fix what made the couple grow apart. I feel like the Girl's feelings are finally surfacing, and that the American is at this point as clueless as he can be. The not so long conversation between the two is a real game changer for the relationship. The two aren't arguing or shouting, but the dialogue is really tensionate, it truly shows that there are a lot of things on the deeper level. The Girl is no longer just a plain girl, she has a voice, she has feelings and she is not afraid to speak up anymore, even though the one she is talking to doesn't understand much at all. In the end, I am completely sure that she is coming out of her submissive girfriend shell and that she realizes she can be an independent woman, taking care of a child without the help of its father. Hemingway doesn't actually tells us if the woman decides to have the abortion or not, but from all the subltle hints in the Girl's dialogue I think it is safe to assume that she is keeping the baby and getting out of the toxic relationship with her overly dominant boyfriend. To conclude my essay, I would like to state the fact that this short story is truly a story of a woman who has her feminist awakening, a woman who gets out of the cage she's been kept in by her dominant partner, a woman who finally speaks up her mind. Hemingway ingeniously brings to life an independent, strong woman, and a real life situation common to our days.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
From 1882-1968, 4,743 lynchings occurred in the United States (NAACP). African Americans accounted for 72.2% of recorded lynchings, yet close to none of these lynchings were ever brought justice. Racial injustice was a huge issue until the mid-late twentieth century, and Martin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s 1963 Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ was one of the first documents to address the issue. It is one of historyÃ¢â¬â¢s most important documents regarding racial injustice, as it is considered a classic document of the civil-rights movement. King wrote the letter while he was in jail for parading without a permit, one of 29 misdemeanor offences King was arrested for (history.com). He wrote it in response to a previous letter from eight southern whiteÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to Christian teachings, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s souls are given by God before birth, souls give people their identities, souls make people human. In saying that segregation distorts the soul K ing is indirectly stating that segregation takes away their humanity. Simple things that white people take for granted, African Americans struggle through everyday. God never intended for there to be unjust laws, for God never intended for there to be sin. Unjust laws damage and distort human personality, by allowing sin to happen without consequence. Because these men are participating in such awful actions without punishment, they end up letting themselves believe that things like lynching and segregation are normal. Here King references another saint, St. Thomas Aquinas, who like St. Augustine builds KingÃ¢â¬â¢s ethos through his own. What King is doing is nothing new, as the idea of civil disobedience had been Ã¢â¬Å"practiced superbly by the early ChristiansÃ¢â¬ like Ã¢â¬Å"Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego,Ã¢â¬ three men who were ordered to worship a statue of their king but refused, for it went against one of the ten commandments, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou shalt have no other gods before me.Ã¢â¬ When it was revealed to King Nebuchadnezzar that they had defied him, they were thrown into a scalding furnace. Although they should have been killed instantly, their faith in God was so strong that they walked out of the furnace completely unharmed. These men andShow MoreRelatedMartin Luther King Jr. s Letter From A Birmingham Jail1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMartin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from a Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ is directed towards the clergymen, although America is his audience, King had come to Birmingham to address the segregation problem in the United States. He refuses to stay silent, even thoug h people told him to wait for the change to happen. King is a part of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference that has many organizations across the South. He felt that he has a right to be in Birmingham because his organizations have connections withRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr. s Letter From Birmingham Jail934 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Martin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s , Ã¢â¬Å" Letter from Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ , King responds to the judgments of a group of clergymen , after King s arrest, by writing a letter explaining why the clergymen s judgments were wrong. In his letter, king brings very reasonable and valid points that challenge the judgments of the ministers. The main arguments that king makes would be the reason of his existence in Birmingham, white power structure and its racial injustice, and finally why negotiation has brought up impatienceRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr. s Letter From Birmingham Jail1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMartin Luther King, Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬ Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,Ã¢â¬ emphasizes the need for civil disobedience when faced with unjust laws. This idea contradicts SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ claim made in Crito, that one must follow the law under all circumstances. In this paper, I will argue that Socrates is not a proponent of civil disobedience based on KingÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of civil disobedience and SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ charges. Moreover, I will argue that both Socrates and King disagree with one another based on the concept of civilRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr s Letter From Birmingham Jail1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbetween these two are most evident in their desire for freedom. Martin Luther King Jr. wanted freedom from segregation and Plato wanted freedom from ignorance. They both wanted justice, and knew that it was immoral to take deny another being justice. For example, Plato has said, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Injustice is always an evil and dishonor to him who acts unjustly.Ã¢â¬ This is similar to what Martin Luther King Jr has also stated in Ã¢â¬Å"Letters from Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"We have a moral responsibility to disobey any law that conflictsRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr.s Letter From Birmingham Jail1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOver the course of Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963), the author, Martin Luther King Jr., makes extended allusions to multiple philosophers, among them Aquinas and Socrates. His comparison would seem to indicate that he shares an affinity with them. However, the clarity with which he makes his arguments and the dedication to a single premise strikes most strongly of Kant. Just as KantÃ¢â¬â¢s magnum opus, Critique of Pure Reason, attempted to completely upend a previously accepted mode of thought, soRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢S Persuasion in Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ 1569 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMartin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s Persuasion in Ã¢â¬Å"Letter From Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ After being arrested and imprisoned in Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King Jr. wrote one of his most famous works to the people of Birmingham, titled Ã¢â¬Å"Letter From Birmingham Jail on April 16, 1963. This piece speaks of the evils of the segregation laws and how the blacks had been treated unfairly in Birmingham, in an attempt to get the white people to support the desegregation of Birmingham. He had been imprisoned because of hisRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s Letter from Birmingham Jail Essay1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPower Analysis: Martin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s Letter from Birmingham Jail A statement from eight white clergymen from Alabama prompted Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Letter From Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ . This statement criticized Kings actions of non-violent protests against racial segregation and the injustice of unequal civil rights in America (Carpenter elt al.). The eight clergymen considered Birmingham to be Ã¢â¬Å"theirÃ¢â¬ town and King was disrupting the Ã¢â¬Å"Law and Order and Common SenseÃ¢â¬ established in coping with racialRead MoreAnalysis Of Martin Luther King Jr s Letter From Birmingham Jail986 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages and Dr. Martin Luther King JrÃ¢â¬â¢s Letter from Birmingham Jail are two important pieces of history. In LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s speech he speaks about the dangers of slavery in the United States and warned everybody that people who disrespected American laws could destroy the United States. On the other hand, Martin Luther King Jr. defended the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism, and argued that people have a mora l responsibility to break unjust laws. Based on these facts, Martin Luther King Jr does notRead MoreAnalysis of Martin Luther King Jr.s Letter from Birmingham Jail962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesintangible, it is still necessary. Some forms of inspiration come as passionate love while others appeal as injustice. Martin Luther King Jr.s Letter from Birmingham Jail was a response to A Call for Unity by eight white clergymen. His inspiration for writing the letter was the clergymens unjust proposals and the letter allowed him to present his rebuttal. Martin Luther King Jr. effectively crafted his counter argument by first directly addressing his audience, the clergymen, and then using logosRead More Martin Luther King Jr.s Letter from Birmingham Jail Essay1149 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMartin Luther King Jr.s Letter from Birmingham Jail Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Martin Luther King Jr. writes the Clergymen that have written him a letter disputing his actions in Birmingham. King is disturbed and offended by the Clergymen disagreeing with his purpose in Birmingham. King say he normally does not respond to criticism because it would waste to much precious time, but since these were men of good will he wanted to give his answers to their statements. In Kings letter he appeals to many emotions as